An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants causes oxidative stress. It affects all parts of the body, but especially the skin.
Redox signaling can be modulated by various second messengers that bind to proteins, such as the hormone nitric oxide (NO), or by inhibiting protein phosphatases (like the immunosuppressant sildenafil).
These factors include extrinsic sources such as UVA and UVB light, environmental pollutants, chemicals, cigarette smoke, ozone, physical damage, infections, and psychological stress. They can also be produced endogenously by the mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation.
Reduces the Signs of Aging
Some internal and external factors, such as stress, poor diet choices, bacterial infections, oxidative foods, pollution, and more, cause us to lose the proper balance of Redox signaling molecules. When these molecules decrease, our cells and DNA cannot function properly.
Redox signaling is a natural process within the body that utilizes antioxidant defenses to fight against harmful free radicals. Supplements can be used to support this process, and you can read ASEA reviews to gain better insight into their efficacy. During this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide anion (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (*OH), are produced.
ROS are produced during metabolic reactions in the electron transport chain. Antioxidants neutralize these reactive oxygen species and other oxidants, such as sulfur and reactive carbon species. The body has several natural antioxidative systems, including non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, glutathione, melatonin, nitric oxide, and zinc (II)-glycine; enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalases (CAT) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx); and exogenous compounds, such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols. Each of these has a specific function.
The skin is our first line of defense against internal and external stressors. This includes UV rays, toxins, bacterial infections, oxidative foods, etc. The redox signaling system triggers the production of antioxidants to neutralize these harmful molecules. It also helps ensure that the immune system attacks only foreign invaders and does not destroy healthy cells and DNA. When this important system is disrupted, oxidants can build up to the point where they damage DNA and proteins, which leads to aging and many health ailments.
Enzymes that generate and decompose reactive species like superoxide and hydrogen peroxide control the redox signaling system. For example, oxidation of the amino acid cysteine results in thiolate formation. This highly reactive form is capable of reacting with electrophiles, such as hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen. This enables the thiolate to activate the phosphorylation of certain kinases and phosphatases, such as the ERK and JNK pathways in keratinocytes.
Reduces Fine Lines and Wrinkles
The domino effect caused by free radicals that attack the skin causes wrinkles and a loss of elasticity.
Internal factors like severe psychological stress, alcoholic beverages, processed food, and external factors such as ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and pathogenic bacteria cause the production of ROS that damage cells and DNA. This leads to a decline in the redox signaling system and a broad range of health problems.
Redox signaling is a sophisticated mechanism that counteracts oxidative stress and keeps the body healthy. It is mainly accomplished by the antioxidant defense systems that contain enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase as well as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, coenzyme Q10, and ubiquinol. All of these molecules quench 1O2. The presence of these antioxidants in the skin is associated with lower skin roughness and wrinkles and a better appearance of the skin.
The skin is remarkably equipped with highly complex antioxidant defense mechanisms, including some enzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs), CuZnSOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These cytoprotective enzymes are essential for countering oxidative stress in the skin. However, the continuous efflux of ROS can overwhelm these efficient antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to a deregulation of skin redox balance homeostasis in the skin, causing a wide range of disease conditions and pathologies.
Redox Signaling consists of two main types of molecules, “activator” and “communicator“. The “activator” molecules trigger the release of the body’s natural antioxidants stored in your skin cells and are responsible for maintaining skin redox balance. The “communicator” molecules communicate between your cell and the rest of the immune system to ensure the optimum performance of your body’s antioxidant defenses against environmental damage. These protective and communicator molecules are what make Redox Signaling unique, a new paradigm of redox biology that distinguishes it from a pure antioxidant approach to health and beauty.